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The International Criminal Court



EXTREME ETHNIC & POLITICAL CLEANSING - Genocide is linked to Eugenics and Discrimination, in its most extreme form. Examples range from local authorities persecuting members of a group, in proportion to being caught out at planning appeals, etc., also being supported by the state, in failing to provide such victims with an effective remedy. To full on and systematic industrial scale annihilation, such as the Holocaust. Cases could be tried by the International Criminal Court.



The Genocide Convention was conceived largely in response to World War II, which saw atrocities such as the Holocaust that lacked an adequate description or legal definition. Polish-Jewish lawyer Raphael Lemkin, who had coined the term genocide in 1944 to describe Nazi policies in occupied Europe, campaigned for its recognition as a crime under international law. This culminated in 1946 in a landmark resolution by the General Assembly that recognized genocide as an international crime and called for the creation of a binding treaty to prevent and punish its perpetration. Subsequent discussions and negotiations among UN member states resulted in the CPPCG. 

The CPPCG has influenced law at both the national and international level. Its definition of genocide has been adopted by international and hybrid tribunals, such as the International Criminal Court, and incorporated into the domestic law of several countries. Its provisions are widely considered to be reflective of customary law and therefore binding on all nations whether or not they are parties. The International Court of Justice has likewise ruled that the principles underlying the Convention represent a peremptory norm against genocide that no government can derogate.


The Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (Genocide Convention) is an instrument of international law that codified for the first time the crime of genocide. The Genocide Convention was the first human rights treaty adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations on 9 December 1948 and signified the international community’s commitment to ‘never again’ after the atrocities committed during the Second World War. Its adoption marked a crucial step towards the development of international human rights and international criminal law as we know it today.

According to the Genocide Convention, genocide is a crime that can take place both in time of war as well as in time of peace. The definition of the crime of genocide, as set out in the Convention, has been widely adopted at both national and international levels, including in the 1998 Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (ICC). Learn more about the definition of the crime of genocide.

Importantly, the Convention establishes on State Parties the obligation to take measures to prevent and to punish the crime of genocide, including by enacting relevant legislation and punishing perpetrators, “whether they are constitutionally responsible rulers, public officials or private individuals” (Article IV). That obligation, in addition to the prohibition not to commit genocide, have been considered as norms of international customary law and therefore, binding on all States, whether or not they have ratified the Genocide Convention.

Status of membership

The Genocide Convention has been ratified or acceded to by 152 States (as of July 2019). Other 42 United Nations Member States have yet to do so. From those, 19 are from Africa, 17 from Asia and 6 from America. Check the map below for details.

The Special Advisor on the Prevention of Genocide calls upon all United Nations Member States that are not yet party to the Genocide Convention, to ratify or accede to it as a matter of priority, so that the Genocide Convention becomes an instrument of universal membership. 

International Day

Every year on 9 December, the United Nations marks the adoption of the Genocide Convention, which is also the International Day of Commemoration and Dignity of the Victims of the Crime of Genocide and of the Prevention of this Crime. Watch the latest event marking the 70th anniversary of the Convention. 




Genocide ratifiction map of the world



MAP OF RATIFICATION - The civilised world has come together to combat Genocide. Presumably, those countries abstaining either have the intention of conducting ethnic cleansing programmes in the future, or don't much care for the protection of people in their own or other lands. Where one might expect some African states to be reluctant to sign to such principles, given the incidences of recorded crimes involving the taking of lives and hacking of limbs, it comes as something of a surprise (according to this map) to see Japan and some Indonesian areas, not to have engaged positively. It might then be wise to steer clear of such countries, in all things commercial and tourist.



Approved and proposed for signature and ratification or accession by General Assembly resolution 260 A (III) of 9 December 1948

Entry into force: 12 January 1951, in accordance with article XIII 

The Contracting Parties , 

Having considered the declaration made by the General Assembly of the United Nations in its resolution 96 (I) dated 11 December 1946 that genocide is a crime under international law, contrary to the spirit and aims of the United Nations and condemned by the civilized world,

Recognizing that at all periods of history genocide has inflicted great losses on humanity, and 

Being convinced that, in order to liberate mankind from such an odious scourge, international co-operation is required, 

Hereby agree as hereinafter provided : 

Article I 

The Contracting Parties confirm that genocide, whether committed in time of peace or in time of war, is a crime under international law which they undertake to prevent and to punish. 

Article II 

In the present Convention, genocide means any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such: 

(a) Killing members of the group; 


(b) Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group; 


(c) Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part


(d) Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group; 


(e) Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group. 


Article III 


The following acts shall be punishable: 


(a) Genocide; 
(b) Conspiracy to commit genocide; 
(c) Direct and public incitement to commit genocide; 
(d) Attempt to commit genocide; 
(e) Complicity in genocide. 

Article IV 

Persons committing genocide or any of the other acts enumerated in article III shall be punished, whether they are constitutionally responsible rulers, public officials or private individuals

Article V 

The Contracting Parties undertake to enact, in accordance with their respective Constitutions, the necessary legislation to give effect to the provisions of the present Convention, and, in particular, to provide effective penalties for persons guilty of genocide or any of the other acts enumerated in article III. 

Article VI 

Persons charged with genocide or any of the other acts enumerated in article III shall be tried by a competent tribunal of the State in the territory of which the act was committed, or by such international penal tribunal as may have jurisdiction with respect to those Contracting Parties which shall have accepted its jurisdiction. 

Article VII 


Genocide and the other acts enumerated in article III shall not be considered as political crimes for the purpose of extradition. 


The Contracting Parties pledge themselves in such cases to grant extradition in accordance with their laws and treaties in force. 

Article VIII 

Any Contracting Party may call upon the competent organs of the United Nations to take such action under the Charter of the United Nations as they consider appropriate for the prevention and suppression of acts of genocide or any of the other acts enumerated in article III. 

Article IX 

Disputes between the Contracting Parties relating to the interpretation, application or fulfilment of the present Convention, including those relating to the responsibility of a State for genocide or for any of the other acts enumerated in article III, shall be submitted to the International Court of Justice at the request of any of the parties to the dispute. 

Article X 

The present Convention, of which the Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish texts are equally authentic, shall bear the date of 9 December 1948. 

Article XI 

The present Convention shall be open until 31 December 1949 for signature on behalf of any Member of the United Nations and of any non-member State to which an invitation to sign has been addressed by the General Assembly. 


The present Convention shall be ratified, and the instruments of ratification shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations


After 1 January 1950, the present Convention may be acceded to on behalf of any Member of the United Nations and of any non-member State which has received an invitation as aforesaid. 


Instruments of accession shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations

Article XII 

Any Contracting Party may at any time, by notification addressed to the Secretary-General of the United Nations, extend the application of the present Convention to all or any of the territories for the conduct of whose foreign relations that Contracting Party is responsible. 

Article XIII 

On the day when the first twenty instruments of ratification or accession have been deposited, the Secretary-General shall draw up a procès-verbal and transmit a copy thereof to each Member of the United Nations and to each of the non-member States contemplated in article XI. 

The present Convention shall come into force on the ninetieth day following the date of deposit of the twentieth instrument of ratification or accession. 


Any ratification or accession effected subsequent to the latter date shall become effective on the ninetieth day following the deposit of the instrument of ratification or accession. 

Article XIV 

The present Convention shall remain in effect for a period of ten years as from the date of its coming into force. 

It shall thereafter remain in force for successive periods of five years for such Contracting Parties as have not denounced it at least six months before the expiration of the current period. 

Denunciation shall be effected by a written notification addressed to the Secretary-General of the United Nations. 

Article XV 

If, as a result of denunciations, the number of Parties to the present Convention should become less than sixteen, the Convention shall cease to be in force as from the date on which the last of these denunciations shall become effective. 

Article XVI 

A request for the revision of the present Convention may be made at any time by any Contracting Party by means of a notification in writing addressed to the Secretary-General. 


The General Assembly shall decide upon the steps, if any, to be taken in respect of such request. 

Article XVII 

The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall notify all Members of the United Nations and the non-member States contemplated in article XI of the following: 

(a) Signatures, ratifications and accessions received in accordance with article XI; 
(b) Notifications received in accordance with article XII; 
(c) The date upon which the present Convention comes into force in accordance with article XIII; 
(d) Denunciations received in accordance with article XIV; 
(e) The abrogation of the Convention in accordance with article XV; 
(f) Notifications received in accordance with article XVI. 

Article XVIII 

The original of the present Convention shall be deposited in the archives of the United Nations. 


A certified copy of the Convention shall be transmitted to each Member of the United Nations and to each of the non-member States contemplated in article XI. 

Article XIX 

The present Convention shall be registered by the Secretary-General of the United Nations on the date of its coming into force. 






MAN MADE FAMINE - There is little difference between Man Made Famine, once the cause of the starvation and deaths is known, than other forms of genocide. Those responsible are held to be Climate Nazis by many, and may one day be accountable for such crimes in the International Criminal Court.

Man Made Famine is a form of geographical genocide. You don't have to line people up and shoot them, gas, or otherwise take their lives to commit the crime of this form of genocide. You simply have to carry on, business as usual, in the knowledge that failing to take action to curb global warming, is killing people in another land.


Famine that is caused by the industrialization and acceleration of growth of economies in unsustainable fashion, is nothing less than the premeditated murder of those less fortunate peoples in climate vulnerable locations on planet earth, who are unable to defend themselves.






GLOBAL WARMING - The cause of much famine is man-made. As our climate warms, the artic ice melts causing ocean levels to rise and agricultural land to become deserts. The most influential world leaders, of the G7 and G20 are fully aware of the consequences of failing to act in sufficient time to prevent Geographical Genocide. According to the 1948 Convention, Genocide is a crime. Any person or state advocating policies that do not seek to reduce climate warming, are therefore criminals. The excuse that their economy might suffer, is no excuse when it comes to (in effect) murdering another human being. It is the insatiable lust for economic growth that has caused the deaths of millions of displaced persons and those who died of lung cancer.





Participant 2
Accession(a), Succession(d), Ratification
  22 Mar 1956 a
  12 May 1955 a
  31 Oct 1963 a
  22 Sep 2006 a
Antigua and Barbuda
  25 Oct 1988 d
Argentina 3
   5 Jun 1956 a
  23 Jun 1993 a
11 Dec 1948
 8 Jul 1949
  19 Mar 1958 a
  16 Aug 1996 a
   5 Aug 1975 d
  27 Mar 1990 a
   5 Oct 1998 a
  14 Jan 1980 a
16 Dec 1949
11 Aug 1954
12 Dec 1949
 5 Sep 1951
  10 Mar 1998 a
   2 Nov 2017 a
Bolivia (Plurinational State of)
11 Dec 1948
14 Jun 2005
Bosnia and Herzegovina 2, 4
  29 Dec 1992 d
11 Dec 1948
15 Apr 1952
  21 Jul 1950 a
Burkina Faso
  14 Sep 1965 a
   6 Jan 1997 a
Cabo Verde
  10 Oct 2011 a
  14 Oct 1950 a
28 Nov 1949
 3 Sep 1952
11 Dec 1948
 3 Jun 1953
China 5, 6, 7
20 Jul 1949
18 Apr 1983
12 Aug 1949
27 Oct 1959
  27 Sep 2004 a
Costa Rica
  14 Oct 1950 a
Côte d'Ivoire
  18 Dec 1995 a
Croatia 2
  12 Oct 1992 d
Cuba 8
28 Dec 1949
 4 Mar 1953
Cyprus 9
  29 Mar 1982 a
Czech Republic 10
  22 Feb 1993 d
Democratic People's Republic of Korea
  31 Jan 1989 a
Democratic Republic of the Congo
  31 May 1962 d
28 Sep 1949
15 Jun 1951
  13 May 2019 a
Dominican Republic
11 Dec 1948
11 Dec 1948
21 Dec 1949
12 Dec 1948
 8 Feb 1952
El Salvador
27 Apr 1949
28 Sep 1950
  21 Oct 1991 a
11 Dec 1948
 1 Jul 1949
  11 Jan 1973 d
  18 Dec 1959 a
11 Dec 1948
14 Oct 1950
  21 Jan 1983 a
  29 Dec 1978 a
  11 Oct 1993 a
Germany 11, 12, 13
  27 Mar 1973 a
  24 Dec 1958 a
29 Dec 1949
 8 Dec 1954
22 Jun 1949
13 Jan 1950
   7 Sep 2000 a
  24 Sep 2013 a
11 Dec 1948
14 Oct 1950
22 Apr 1949
 5 Mar 1952
   7 Jan 1952 a
14 May 1949
29 Aug 1949
29 Nov 1949
27 Aug 1959
Iran (Islamic Republic of)
 8 Dec 1949
14 Aug 1956
  20 Jan 1959 a
  22 Jun 1976 a
17 Aug 1949
 9 Mar 1950
   4 Jun 1952 a
  23 Sep 1968 a
   3 Apr 1950 a
  26 Aug 1998 a
   7 Mar 1995 a
   5 Sep 1997 a
Lao People's Democratic Republic
   8 Dec 1950 a
  14 Apr 1992 a
30 Dec 1949
17 Dec 1953
  29 Nov 1974 a
11 Dec 1948
20 Jun 1950
  16 May 1989 a
  24 Mar 1994 a
   1 Feb 1996 a
   7 Oct 1981 a
  14 Jul 2017 a
  20 Dec 1994 a
  24 Apr 1984 a
  16 Jul 1974 a
   6 Jun 2014 a
   8 Jul 2019 a
14 Dec 1948
22 Jul 1952
  30 Mar 1950 a
   5 Jan 1967 a
Montenegro 14
  23 Oct 2006 d
  24 Jan 1958 a
  18 Apr 1983 a
30 Dec 1949
14 Mar 1956
  28 Nov 1994 a
  17 Jan 1969 a
  20 Jun 1966 a
New Zealand 15
25 Nov 1949
28 Dec 1978
  29 Jan 1952 a
  27 Jul 2009 a
North Macedonia 2
  18 Jan 1994 d
11 Dec 1948
22 Jul 1949
11 Dec 1948
12 Oct 1957
11 Dec 1948
11 Jan 1950
Papua New Guinea
  27 Jan 1982 a
11 Dec 1948
 3 Oct 2001
11 Dec 1948
24 Feb 1960
11 Dec 1948
 7 Jul 1950
  14 Nov 1950 a
Portugal 7
   9 Feb 1999 a
Republic of Korea
  14 Oct 1950 a
Republic of Moldova
  26 Jan 1993 a
   2 Nov 1950 a
Russian Federation
16 Dec 1949
 3 May 1954
  16 Apr 1975 a
San Marino
   8 Nov 2013 a
Saudi Arabia
  13 Jul 1950 a
   4 Aug 1983 a
Serbia 4, 16
11 Dec 1948
12 Mar 2001 a
   5 May 1992 a
  18 Aug 1995 a
Slovakia 10
  28 May 1993 d
Slovenia 2
   6 Jul 1992 d
South Africa
  10 Dec 1998 a
  13 Sep 1968 a
Sri Lanka
  12 Oct 1950 a
St. Vincent and the Grenadines
   9 Nov 1981 a
State of Palestine
   2 Apr 2014 a
  13 Oct 2003 a
30 Dec 1949
27 May 1952
   7 Sep 2000 a
Syrian Arab Republic
  25 Jun 1955 a
   3 Nov 2015 a
  24 May 1984 a
  16 Feb 1972 a
Trinidad and Tobago
  13 Dec 2002 a
  29 Nov 1956 a
  31 Jul 1950 a
  26 Dec 2018 a
  14 Nov 1995 a
16 Dec 1949
15 Nov 1954
United Arab Emirates
  11 Nov 2005 a
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
  30 Jan 1970 a
United Republic of Tanzania
   5 Apr 1984 a
United States of America
11 Dec 1948
25 Nov 1988
11 Dec 1948
11 Jul 1967
   9 Sep 1999 a
Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)
  12 Jul 1960 a
Viet Nam 17, 18
   9 Jun 1981 a
Yemen 19
   6 Apr 1989 a
  13 May 1991 a







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