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ZEWT ALORS : This ship includes hydrogen hybrid potential, and up to a 4000 nautical mile range on hydrogen alone. This kind of cutting edge innovation may be too far removed from the interests of members of Waterborne, to get a look in. Though, special dispensation may be applied in the case of not-for-profit SMEs at some point in time, stakeholders will more than likely move heaven and earth to stay with their existing fleets - despite inconvenient solutions abounding. The point here being that it was the attitudes of many of the members of the partnership that has taken us to the brink in climate terms.






Amid growing global and European societal pressure to resolve issues related to climate change, air pollution and the degradation of the world’s oceans, political and regulatory attention has been increasingly directed towards waterborne transport, due to this mode of transport’s high environmental and climate impact [1.] A number of major developments are illustrative in this respect:


“The European Green Deal” (December 20192), to ensure that Europe will be the first climate-neutral continent, thereby making Europe a prosperous, modern, competitive and climate-neutral economy, as envisaged in the Commission Communication “A Clean Planet for All: A European strategic long-term vision for a prosperous, modern, competitive and climate neutral economy” (November 20183); The Paris Agreement Objectives (COP214) and the scientific findings from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC5), which emphasizes the need to limit global warming to 1,5°C above pre-industrial levels, and related global GHG emission pathways, in line with the Paris Agreement; The International Maritime Organisation’s (IMO) Initial IMO Strategy on the reduction of GHG emissions from ships (April 20186); The EU and global sulphur cap7 as of 1 January 2020; The Central Commission for Navigation of the Rhine’s  (CCNR) Ministerial Mannheim declaration (October 20188);

The calls from the European Council9 and European Parliament [10] to enhance the environmental track record of inland waterway transport; The calls from the European Parliament [11] to reduce global emissions from shipping and its resolution declaring a climate and environmental emergency [12] in Europe and globally; The Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), in particular SDG 9 (Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure) [13], SDG 13 (Climate Action)14 and SDG 14 (Life Below Water) [15].


The tell-tale signs and impacts of climate change – such as the rise in sea level, ice loss and extreme weather – increased during 2015-2019, which is set to be the warmest five-year period on record according to the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) 16. There is an urgent need to accelerate action. Achieving a net zero-emission waterborne transport sector by 2050 at the latest, and at least 50% reduction of absolute emissions by 2030, entails a race against the clock, since the average age of a modern maritime vessel is 21 years [17], although this is not uniform across vessel types. Therefore, the transition towards zero-emission waterborne transport will need to address existing, as well as new-build ships. In addition, it will not only require research and development regarding (the use of) alternative fuels, but will also have to take into account all means to radically improve the ship’s energy efficiency and related emission efficiency (both retrofitting and new build). As well as making seagoing ships and inland vessels zero-emission, the transition towards zero-emission waterborne transport will also require changes to infrastructure, ship design, shipbuilding processes, maritime equipment production, ports, alternative fuel terminals and processing plants, the wider logistics chain and more energy-efficient operations. Measures will also need to be taken in different action areas such as digitalisation (e.g. to allow better energy monitoring and to increase energy efficiency) and the education and training of the current and future workforce in order to ensure that the implementation of new technologies and concepts is properly executed. To put this ambition and commitment into practice whilst taking into account the timelines set out in various regulations, there is a need to start the transition process now. In order to achieve true net zero-emission waterborne transport, the waterborne transport sector is determined to address all environmental challenges in an integrated manner, whilst prioritizing the impact on climate change, research, development and innovation will address the ambition to eliminate the entire environmental footprint of waterborne transport.


Whilst the threats and risks of climate change and the harm from air pollution are known, policy actions have often failed to keep pace, despite increasing societal demand. To address this, the European Commission presented the European Green Deal in December 2019 with the objective for Europe to become the world’s first climate-neutral continent by 2050, through the provision of a package of measures, which should enable European citizens and businesses to benefit from a sustainable green transition. The Green Deal sets out the Commission’s commitment to tackle climate and environmental challenges. To achieve climate neutrality, the European Green Deal envisages cutting transport emissions by 90% by 2050 at the latest. In addition, it lays down the ambition to reduce GHG emissions by at least 50% by 203018. This communication builds upon a clear strategic long-term vision for a prosperous, modern, competitive and climate neutral economy (A Clean Planet for All), as
communicated in November 2018. This strategy confirms Europe’s commitment to lead in global climate action and to present a vision that can lead to achieving net-zero GHG by 2050 through a socially fair transition carried out in a cost-efficient manner. It defines pathways for the transition to a net-zero GHG economy and strategic priorities.


Seven main strategic building blocks to achieve the objectives of this vision have been defined by the European Commission and “clean, safe and connected mobility” is one of these [19]. In March 2020, the European Commission adopted a proposal to enshrine in legislation the EU’s political commitment to be climate neutral by 2050, to protect the planet and EU citizens 20.


The European Climate Law establishes a framework for the irreversible and gradual reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and it addresses the pathway to achieve the 2050 target. The Sustainable and Smart Mobility Strategy, part of the European Green Deal, must set out the European Commission’s approach to delivering the transport sectors contribution to the goal of climate neutrality by 205021. The FuelEU Maritime – Green European Maritime Space initiative planned for 2020 aims to accelerate achievement of low-emission, climate neutral shipping and ports by promoting the uptake of sustainable alternative energy and power 22.

At the international level, IMO’s Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) adopted an initial strategy for the reduction of GHG emissions from (seagoing) ships in April 2018, setting out a vision to reduce GHG emissions from international shipping by at least 50% compared to 2008 figures by 2050 and to phase them out as early as possible this century.


When the strategy will be reviewed in 2023, the level of ambition is expected to be considerably increased, not at least in light of recent scientific reports like the IPPC “Global warming of 1,5°C” report [28]. In October 2016, the IMO MEPC also adopted the decision to reduce the sulphur content of marine fuels down to 0.50% as of 1 January 2020 in order to address the negative effects of related air pollution on health and the environment.


Furthermore, the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) emphasize the importance of investments in infrastructure to achieve SDG 9 (Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure), call for urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts SDG 13 (Climate Action) and underline the need to conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources SDG 14 (Life Below Water).


The changing climate is already exposing waterborne transport and the entire maritime economy to multiple risks, which require significant investment in resilience-strengthening measures. Without urgent climate change mitigation action, the global sea level rise will be accelerated and the frequency of extreme marine events, such as marine heatwave and tropical cyclones, will increase, as stated in the latest IPCC Special Report on the Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate (November 201929). Low water levels in European rivers are affecting the economy as well. Although Germany enjoyed an overall increase of its GDP in 2018 (+1.5%), this could have been higher if Germany’s waterways had not experienced low water levels. Sinking water levels on Germany’s rivers (used to transport industrial goods) probably shaved at least 0.7 percentage point off economic growth in 201830.


Industrial commitment and competitiveness Turning to industry, in January 2019 the Waterborne Technology Platform launched its vision regarding zero-emission waterborne transport in 205031, whilst – in addition – an emerging number of maritime and inland ship-owners have set net-zero CO2 emissions in 2050 or earlier32 as their target [33]. The European waterborne transport sector welcomes the European Green Deal and is committed to reaching its objectives [34]. An initial group of shipowners have indicated that their fleet will be emission free in 2050, stating that RD&I will be key to reaching this objective [35]. The European maritime technology sector annually invests 8-9% of its turnover in RD&I36 and is fully committed to develop the solutions needed and to invest accordingly [37].

The waterborne transport sector is strategic for Europe form an essential transport route for the global and intra-continental trade flows and are places for living and recreation. Although less visible, waterborne transport is essential for the functioning of modern economies. Principally the most energy-efficient form of freight transportation, the quantity of goods moved by ship will not fall and is expected to increase in line with developing economies and global growth. In addition, waterborne transport is an essential means of passenger transport as well. For example, ferries are often key for local transport. Each year, more than 400 million passengers embark and disembark at European ports43. It is challenging to address this global growth whilst the globe strives to decarbonise every aspect of daily life. As a matter of priority for the European Green Deal, a substantial part of freight carried by road today should shift onto waterways to boost multimodal transport and the efficiency of the entire transport system. The urgency to reduce emissions, the conservation of resources and the need to use resources carefully are driving the increase of energy-efficiency.


Furthermore, there will be a growing demand for clean energy – not only from shipping - that is expected to be more expensive and may be less available than their fossil alternatives. Increasing the energy-efficiency will be a key driver for waterborne transport.


European-based maritime shipping companies control around 36% of the global fleet [44]. The European maritime technology sector is a global leader in high-technology shipbuilding (for example maritime and inland cruise ships, electric ships, offshore support) and green shipping technologies treatment systems, green equipment and smart technology for improved efficiency and operations). European companies supply almost half of global maritime equipment and have developed and designed the majority of the world’s fleets’ power systems. For two-stroke main engines, the market share of EU-designed engines was over 90% between 2015 and 2019. For medium speed main engines, this was around 70%45. The achievement of zero-emission waterborne transport not only represents a major challenge to Europe’s waterborne transport sector, it also offers an excellent opportunity to further enhance its global competitiveness. This means that strengthening the EU's expertise in zero-emission technologies will enable European companies to provide innovative solutions to achieve the transition towards zero emission waterborne transport. It will also enable European companies to compete in new markets and to regain lost markets which are currently dominated by competitors from the Asian regions.


A prime example is the equipment delivery for, and construction of, merchant ships such as bulkers, tankers and general cargo vessels, as well as ferries which, until recently, were mainly built in Europe. Challenge to transform to a zero-emission mode of transport: environmental impacts of shipping In 2018, more than 130 million tons of CO2 were emitted from seagoing ships above 5,000 gross tonnage visiting European ports46, which represented over 13% of total EU transport emissions [47]. Globally, shipping annually emits around 940 million tons of CO2 [48], which accounts for 2-3% of total GHG emissions [49]. Over two-third of the GHG emissions from ships sailing to or from European ports originates from container ships, tankers, bulk carriers and passenger vessels [50]. To put this in perspective, if shipping was a country it would be the 6th biggest GHG emitter in the world. If no action is taken, these emissions are expected to increase by between 20% and 120% by 205051 (or by between 50% to 250% according to the third IMO greenhouse gas study [52], which will be soon updated), driven by economic growth and the resulting increased demand for transportation of goods and people.


Radical change is required in order to be able to meet the 2050 climate targets, the 50% - 55% reduction of emissions by 2030 in line with the European Green Deal, as well as reduction of harmful air pollutant emissions, and this will not be possible through operational changes and incremental improvements alone. New technologies need to be developed and deployed very soon.


Waterborne transport is one of the most efficient modes of transport in terms of CO2 per ton kilometer. However, due to its large scale, it still generates a substantial amount of emissions and each year seagoing ships consume around 300 million tons of fuel, emitting approximately 1 billion tons of CO2, which is similar to global aviation59. In addition, as a result of residual fuel oils and the emission levels of existing older ships,  it is a major source of air pollution, particularly within coastal and port areas with a high density of population, but also on the mainland along inland shipping routes, since as air pollution travels long distances. Shipping accounts for 18 to 30 % of the nitrogen oxide (NOx) and 8% of the sulphur oxides (SOx) of total global air emissions [60]. Just 15 of the biggest ships emit more of the noxious oxides of nitrogen and sulphur than all the world’s cars put together [61]. Without any action being taken, by 2030 NOx emissions from shipping will exceed those from land-based sources in the EU62. Maritime shipping also impacts water quality due, for example, to oil spills, sewage discharges, spreading invasive aquatic species in ballast water, use of toxic hull coatings to avoid fouling, discharges from exhaust treatment systems, etc. Noise is impacting citizens close to shipping routes and destinations and underwater noise is  impacting marine mammals and other marine species [63].


European CO2 emissions from shipping are a major challenge. In 2018, more than 130 million tons of CO2, or around 13% of total EU transport emissions, were emitted from maritime ships over 5,000 gross tonnage visiting European ports. International and domestic shipping dominates CO2 emissions, whilst inland waterway transport cannot be ignored. The EU project, PROMINENT, calculated that inland waterway transport in the EU results in 3.8 million tons of CO2 emissions per year [64].

The world is not on course to achieve a temperature increase of well below 2°C and therefore urgent action is needed. Even if the energy mix used for waterborne transport is changed in accordance with the objectives of limiting the temperature increase and the economic developments are commensurate with this goal, shipping emissions are projected to increase by 20-50% between 2008 and 205065 (or by between 50%-250% according to the third IMO GHG study, to be updated in 2021).

Increasing the energy efficiency of ships has its limits and would not be sufficient to meet either the 2050 level of ambition of the European Green Deal or the targets of the Initial IMO Strategy on Reduction of GHG Emissions from Ships. Only a combination of zero-emission innovative solutions, fuels, operational approaches and technologies, triggered by ambitious regulations, can bring about the change needed.


Emissions of sulphur dioxide (SOx) from maritime transport affect air quality in the EU and globally. SOx emissions result from the onboard combustion of oil-based fuel products and are directly linked to the sulphur content in marine fuels used in maritime transport [66]. SOx emissions are a precursor of PM2.5 and a major cause of acid rain. According to the European Environment Agency, shipping is responsible for 11.05% of EU NOx emissions and 11.05% of SOx emissions [67]. Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) form smog, acid rain and eutrophication and are central to the formation of fine particles (PM2.5) and ground level ozone, both of which are associated with adverse health effects, including premature deaths. Concentrations of air pollutants from shipping can be much higher in coastal and port areas where it can be the dominant source of air pollution. While current IMO and EU regulations will reduce SO2 emissions from international shipping from 2020, emissions remain much higher than other transport modes. After 2030, NOx emissions from shipping are set to exceed all EU land-based sources [68].

The sulphur in fuel requirements that have been agreed by the IMO will cut SO2 emissions by 50-80 percent up to 2030, but in the absence of additional regulations, emissions will rebound afterwards. CO2 and NOx emissions are expected to further increase without additional measures [69]. The IMO has designated the North Sea and the Baltic Sea as a NOx Emission Control Area (NECA) starting from January 1 2021. According to recent estimates by the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP), consisting of deposition modelling based on available emission scenarios, the annual reduction in total Nitrogen deposition in the Baltic Sea area will be 22,000 tons as a combined effect of the Baltic and North Seas NECAs and compared to a non-NECA scenario. However, a lengthy period of fleet renewal is needed before the regulation will show full effect, according to HELCOM (Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission) [70]. Thus illustrating the need for retro-fittable technologies as an essential tool to meet policy objectives. 


Inland waterway transport plays an important role in the transport of goods in Europe. More than 37,000 kilometres of waterways connect hundreds of cities and industrial regions. Thirteen Member States have an interconnected waterway network. The potential for increasing the modal share of inland waterway transport is significant [71]. Inland waterway transport, however, should act urgently to increase its sustainable advantage. Passing through the centre of towns and cities, an inland waterway vessel will produce approximately 11,000 kg of NOx per year, whilst a modern diesel car within the same area may produce less than 1kg of NOx per year. Other transport modes are becoming cleaner and inland waterway transport faces the risk of falling behind. Studies have analysed average emissions of IWT vessels on tonne-kilometres (as in the PROMINENT [72] project).

PROMINENT calculated that 1.3 million m3 of gasoil fuel is consumed per year by inland waterway transport in the EU, resulting in 3.8 million tons of CO2 emissions per year, 51 kilotons of NOx and 2.2 kilotons of PM. The total external costs74 caused by the emissions to air add up to 1.09 billion EUR, of which 825 million for NOx, 140 million for PM and 126 million for CO2. It should be noted that inland waterway transport has been using low sulphur fuel since 2011.


Ship hulls and marine structures are coated to prevent sea life attaching themselves, thereby increasing friction, slowing down the ship and increasing fuel consumption. The fuel savings made by limiting the adhesion of marine organisms has been estimated to be $60 billion annually, reducing GHG emissions by 384 million and SO2 by 3.6 million tons [80]. However, the antifouling compounds used may "leach" harmful substances into the sea, damaging the environment and possibly entering the food chain.


The maritime transport sector directly employs over 685,000 workers at sea and on shore [81]. It supports 2 million workers through indirect and induced employment. The EU maritime shipping industry contributes a total of €149 billion to the EU’s annual GDP [82]. EU companies own 36% of the world fleet, the largest single share in 201883. Europe has 300 shipyards, the largest of which build the most complex, innovative and technologically advanced civilian and naval ships and platforms in the world. Technologies for these ships form the basis for advanced zero-emission technologies to be further adapted for other ship types. Others maintain, convert, repair or retrofit existing (merchant) ship types. A third category builds, repairs or maintains smaller vessel types or boats. Together, these yards generate annual production worth €42.9 billion and directly employ 285,000 people (EU28) [84]. Moreover, for each job they create, another six jobs are created in the supply chain.


Almost half of marine equipment is produced by European companies, including over 70% of the world’s large marine engines. The majority of the European marine equipment sector are SMEs. With an annual production of €44.5 billion, the equipment sector produces and supplies all types of materials, equipment, systems, technologies and services. The companies can be global, regional or local players. Europe’s maritime equipment companies are the leading providers of solutions to combat climate change, to minimize marine pollution and to make shipping better connected, more digital, automated or even autonomous.


Approximately 4 billion tons, representing 75% of all goods, and 415 million passengers pass through EU ports each year. Ports are not only essential for the import and export of goods, but they also constitute energy hubs, bringing together infrastructure managers, shipping companies and energy suppliers who contribute to the uptake of electricity and clean fuels. Ports also link maritime transport with the hinterland through the different land transport modes, including inland waterways. Ports generate employment: 1.5 million workers are employed in European ports, with the same amount employed indirectly across the 22 EU maritime Member States [85].

Europe’s long-standing leadership in the maritime sector is coming under pressure. The EU’s share of worldwide shipbuilding is also in decline. Europe’s current global leadership position in maritime technology is once again challenged by Asia. This time, South Korea and China in particular have identified complex shipbuilding, as well as advanced maritime equipment, as new markets for themselves. They are therefore applying dedicated sectoral strategies which contain the same well known “toolbox” of government-led policies, financial incentives (including massive state aid) and unfair trade practices, as the one that had already helped them to successfully conquer Europe’s merchant shipbuilding and partly Europe’s offshore building industry. Consolidating and further strengthening the EU’s frontrunner role in RD&I and implementation of greening technologies and concepts will be essential to ensure the transition to a clean and competitive European waterborne transport sector and to enhance the competitiveness of the European sector across all market segments.


FP7 and Horizon 2020 invested around 50 million EUR per year, enabling support to be provided each year to two to three topics to address all aspects of waterborne transport research. Addressing decarbonisation and environmental impact accounted for a substantial part of these research efforts. Nevertheless, these investments were insufficient to enable a coordinated programme of actions to tackle the urgent climate and environmental challenges facing the sector. In 2019, the EU’s European Political Strategy Centre report, “Clean Transport at Sea”86, called for more ambitious and coordinated R&I investment in Horizon Europe to address the environmental challenges encountered in the sector.


Under Horizon Europe, there is an urgent need to upscale and accelerate activities to reduce GHG emissions by at least 50% by 2030 and to phase out GHG emissions completely before 2050. Considering the sector’s diversity and the urgent environmental challenge, it is essential to mobilise a critical mass and to leverage coordinated private and public investment. Currently, the investments  being made to address the diverse challenges which have to be met to decarbonise are insufficient (e.g. just one topic in 7 years of Horizon 2020 regarding decarbonising long distance shipping). This urgency for action and the need for the Co-Programmed Partnership zero-emission waterborne transport in this perspective, was recently highlighted in the Ministerial Declaration on the future outlook of EU Waterborne transport [87].


by 2050, a radical change from “business as usual” will be required. Specifically, (EU) research and innovation will need to target new solutions, including new - potentially disruptive - technologies, including solutions which might only be applicable for certain segments of the waterborne transport sector. Furthermore, the focus should shift from the current fossil fuels to climate-neutral, sustainable alternative fuel solutions for which, moreover, adequate infrastructures (e.g. in ports) need to be put in place. For these alternative fuels, the respective technologies and relevant infrastructure are not yet in place for waterborne transport. Furthermore, and in view of the long lifetime of ships, to achieve these ambitious goals, the waterborne transport sector will not only have to develop and build new zero-emission ships.




To accelerate deployment of zero-emission technologies, it will also need to develop solutions to retrofit existing ships. Ships that will join the fleet in the coming years, will have to be designed with future retrofitting to green technologies in mind, allowing for maximal uptake of new emerging technologies. For ships that are already existing now, the retrofitting process is likely to be the most complex and difficult part in the transition towards zero-emission waterborne transport. Retrofitting also concerns reducing polluting emissions in line with the European Green Deal, as well as cutting GHGs. Therefore, considering that ships now entering service could be operational until 2050, there is an urgent need for the development of effective,  efficient and affordable deployable solutions. Decreasing the energy use of waterborne transport will be key as well, both in terms of reducing GHG emissions, as well as in order to ensure economically viable solutions. With the prices of alternative fuels probably being relatively expensive compared to fossil fuels, energy savings will be crucial. All these efforts will have a positive impact on the modal shift to waterborne transport as well. On the one hand, by being a sustainable and climate-resilient mode of transport and thereby a preferred one. On the other hand, solutions deployed in our aim to reduce the energy needs will also increase the integration of waterborne transport in the entire logistics chain. Due to the wide range of ship types and waterborne transport services, there is currently no clear, single path to decarbonisation [88].


Since it is highly diversified, the waterborne transport sector consists of many different segments, with - in turn - many sub-segments, which have different interests, challenges, opportunities and needs. This diversification is not only a wealth for the sector and society at large, it is also a bottleneck for the sector. The lack of a clear path towards zero-emission waterborne transport entails a high risk for individual companies to invest in RD&I activities. In addition, the specialised and competitive nature of the industry results in a large number of SME companies with limited access to research funding. Consequently, European research and innovation for the waterborne transport sector plays an essential role to increase coherence and to develop concrete solutions.

Regarding the shipowners, the shipowner and the charterer have diverging interests and this often results in complex decision making about future investments. In the inland waterway transport sector, the majority of the shipowners are SMEs (family owned vessels), with limited investment capacity, leading to hardly any renewal or investment.


Deployment of the outcomes of RD&I is hampered by the high capital cost of waterborne transport systems and consequently the risk of being a first adopter of a new technology or solution. This can be further exacerbated by a regulatory framework which assumes the presence of existing technology, as well as a conservative and reactive culture amongst the sector. EU RD&I activities and their communication provide the technology demonstration needed to provide assurances concerning the take up of new solutions, as well as a foundation for EU and global regulation.

One example is the implementation of LNG as a cleaner marine fuel; its development was hampered by a lack of regulatory safety to enable ships to sail using the fuel. Also, no fuel bunkering infrastructure was available and this, in turn, delayed demand to build LNG powered vessels. In addition, whilst LNG is a cleaner results in complex decision making about future investments.


As indicated in the European Green Deal, a 90% reduction in transport emissions is needed by 2050, to be able to achieve climate neutrality. Road, rail, aviation and waterborne transport will all have to contribute to the reduction [101]. The Green Deal envisages a basket of measures to ensure shipping fairly contributes to the climate effort, including the increased deployment of carbon neutral and sustainable alternative fuels and the extension of the European Emissions Trading Scheme to shipping, the revision of the Energy Taxation Directive as well as the increased use of multimodal transport to decarbonise the entire freight transport system. To substantially decarbonise, 75% of inland freight carried today by road should be shifted onto rail and inland waterways as more GHG efficient transport modes. Automated and connected multimodal mobility will also play an increasing role, together with digital and smart traffic management systems, to increase efficiency. These elements will be addressed in collaboration with other related European Partnerships

At international level, IMO's Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) adopted an initial strategy on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from (seagoing) ships in April 2018, agreeing to reduce GHG emissions from international shipping by at least 50% by 2050 compared to 2008 and the vision to phase them out as early as possible in this century. It is expected that even more stringent targets will be set in the international community in the coming years. However, even at the present level of ambition the global shipping industry will depend on sustainable alternative fuels to be introduced quickly, and the solutions that the Partnership will be able to deliver will also be helpful to achieve the goals of the Strategy.


Coherence and collaboration with other Partnerships include (upstream):

The proposed Partnership, “Towards a competitive European industrial battery value chain for stationary and mobile applications”, which addresses battery development, with automotive as the largest target and biggest market. The Batteries Partnership will also address development for other markets, including for waterborne transport. In this respect, it focuses on specialist battery technology, material and manufacturing, including battery safety, whilst the Zero-emission waterborne transport Partnership will address integration of a battery within the ship systems and enable pre-deployment in maritime and inland applications (addressing, for example, charging infrastructure, certification process, etc.). This is reflected in the proposal for Batteries and cooperation between the two Partnerships will be maintained to ensure relevance and to generate synergies; The proposed “Clean Hydrogen” Partnership focuses on green hydrogen fuel production, storage and supply, as well as some demand side technologies, such as heavy duty road transport, where there has been substantial prior activity, as well as the development of high-power fuel cells. The Waterborne Partnership will address technology integration, implementation and validation, for both maritime and inland shipping.

This includes bunkering and onboard storage of non-hydrogen alternative fuels. It would be important to collaborate with the “Clean Hydrogen” partnership with a view to developing the multi MW fuel cell required for ship propulsion and the related fuel technology;


The proposed Connected, Cooperative and Automated Mobility Partnership “CCAM”, addresses mobility and safety for automated road transport. CCAM also mentions potential interfaces with other transport modes. In this context, within a zero-emission waterborne transport Partnership, any efficiency improvements achieved through automated shipping and maritime/river traffic management may be leveraged through synergies with CCAM for the efficiency of the wider multimodal mobility system as a whole; 


The proposed Partnership for “A climate neutral, sustainable and productive Blue Economy” is focused upon resilient marine ecosystems and marine resources, contributing to the realization of a sustainable economy for maritime and inland waters. Waterborne transport is one of several influencers on the marine environment and, in this respect, cooperation between the Partnerships will be ensured. It is noted, that the ‘Blue Economy’ is planned as a Partnership with Member State participation, focusing on informing policy implementation. It is not expected, as such, to develop the solutions enabling zero-emission waterborne transport itself (e.g. new technologies, fuels, or any relevant bunkering infrastructure).


From the existing Partnerships, there are synergies with the “Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Joint Undertaking” (FCH JU), which currently includes waterborne transport as one of the applications addressed. Presently, within Horizon 2020, maritime demonstrators developed by the FCH JU are characterised by single technologies and small scales and do not provide a full transferability of the solutions to the wider range of waterborne transport products, including integration within wider ship systems. At the next stage, within Horizon Europe, it will be necessary to scale up these deployments to impact on large scale shipping and these specialist development and demonstration activities will be undertaken within this Partnership.


The Partnership should pave the way for the implementation of zero-emission waterborne transport technologies and solutions from 2030 onwards. The achievement of this goal would imply that there is no need to extend the duration of the Partnership after the lifetime of Horizon Europe, namely 2027 (although some projects will be granted in the last year of Horizon Europe, which will be closed after the final calls in 2027). However, the RD&I activities related to zero emission waterborne transport are of key interest for the Waterborne Technology Platform and its members. The Waterborne Technology Platform will monitor the projects co-financed by Horizon Europe until the end of their lifetime and will form the key platform for exchanges of information regarding RD&I activities related to the Partnership, their implementation and possible barriers to implementation. The organisational structure of the Partnership will stay in place until the final project is finished, and the Waterborne TP will organise frequent meetings with all partners (both public and private) involved in the execution of the Partnership.

The waterborne transport sector is highly diversified and consists of many different segments, which, in turn are comprised of many subsegments with different interests, challenges, opportunities and needs. This diversification is not only a wealth for the sector and society at large, but also a bottleneck for the sector. The lack of a clear path makes it very extremely risky for individual companies to make investments in RD&I and the fragmented and competitive nature of the industry results in a large number of SME companies with limited access to research funding.

It is likely that the transition towards zero-emission waterborne transport will require a combination of solutions, including the use of alternative fuels, an upgrade of onshore (port) infrastructure and a reduction of fuel demand by improving operational performance. Smart shipping for improved energy-efficiency will play a role in reducing fuel consumption and therefore the need for alternative fuels, as well as emissions, whilst energy management, new propulsors and energy storage will be other important areas of intervention. Possible alternative fuels (depending on safety, sustainability and availability) include conventional and advanced biofuels and bioliquids/biogases as well as renewable synthetic and electro fuels (fuels produced through electrolysis and chemical catalysis or biological synthesis, such as methane (LBG), methanol, alcohols, hydrogen and ammonia (NH3)) all strengthened in their applicability through efficiency improvements achieved by harnessing of other renewable energy sources, such as wind and solar.


A key element in transforming the waterborne transport sector is the involvement and commitment of all relevant stakeholders. The Partnership will involve the broad spectrum of stakeholders from the start of the project in different ways, enabling the Partnership to interact with the relevant stakeholders at the appropriate moment in time. The following types of Partners will form the core membership of the Partnership:

Shipowners, as end users of the technologies and concepts developed within the framework of the Partnership;

Ship operators, which are responsible for managing vessel performance, bunker quality and quantity pricing and ship routing and are therefore essential decision makers in selecting vessels with certain technologies;

Shipbuilders, which will have a key role in retrofitting the current fleet, as well as building zero-emission vessels;

Cargo owners, selecting the type of transport;


Equipment suppliers, which will have an essential role in retrofitting the current fleet, as well as developing the equipment for building zero emission vessels;


Inland waterway infrastructure authorities, which are essential for the maintenance and development of inland waterway transport infrastructure;


Authorities (international, European, national, regional, local), developing policies, legislation and strategies and monitoring its implementation;


Academia, crucial for scientific research;


Research Institutes, essential players in research and testing of new technologies and concepts;


Inland and maritime port authorities and operators, which will provide the key infrastructure needed to reduce emissions; 


Classification Societies, non-governmental organizations that establish and maintain technical standards for the construction and operation of ships and offshore structures; 


Engineering offices, essential for the design of new solutions and retrofitting;


Energy Suppliers, which will develop energy solutions for waterborne transport;


Shipping agents, managing port calls (representing the shipping company at ports) and acting as cargo brokers;


Freight forwarders and Logistics Service providers (organising and selecting the best transport option).


The governance presented below is based on the assumption that the current Waterborne TP Association can be the private partner in the Partnership. Another option would be the establishment of a separate association, as has been done in the past for cPPPs. The development of the governance structure also depends on the final MoU or contract laying down the requirements of the Partnership. An ad-hoc working group is currently exploring possible solutions to guarantee the most efficient governance and operation for both the Waterborne TP and the Partnership. The proposed governance scheme described below may have to be adjusted in light of the results of this on-going work. The Partnership will be concluded between the European Commission and the Waterborne TP Association, representing the entire waterborne transport community.


The Waterborne TP is established as an Association under Belgian law with the role of representing its members with regards to RD&I strategies defined within its statutes. It is a membership-based organisation; it is open to newcomers, on the basis of a small paid subscription (€3,000 annually as of 2020). Other parties can also participate as observers at no cost, subject to board approval; these may include civil society organisations and representatives of national administrations.


The Partnership will be governed by a Partnership Board. This board will steer the Partnership towards achieving its SRIA, supervise the process of interaction with industry and member states, approve the research programme as set out in the SRIA and the specific topics to be addressed in Horizon Europe calls. The actual decision on the calls to be published is taken following comitology procedure.


Any organization that charges a fee to join, violates the general principles of Article 10 of the European Convention of Human Rights:

ARTICLE 10: The right to receive and impart information.

Readers may then conclude that the insistence on a fee to have access to information and financial instruments, not only violates Article 10, but also introduces Financial Discrimination as an Article 14 violation.

In that this is a European organization, we would have expected strict adherence to their own governing Human Rights laws. We await further clarification. Since, the violation of these basic human rights, also fetters the proper inclusion of SME's, as have been identified as being out in the cold RD&I wise.


The Partnership will launch a dedicated website which will give an overview of its research agenda and of ongoing and finished projects. For finished projects, the website will detail the main results and deliverables for everyone to use. The website will also offer the possibility to provide feedback on the Strategic Research and Innovation Agenda and the rolling detailed activity plans through surveys and will show what feedback has (or has not) been taken up and why.


The Partnership will establish a visual identity to stimulate participation in its activities by organising conferences, workshops, social media accounts e.g. Twitter, newsletters and press releases. As the main European branch organisations will be taking part in the Partnership, the broader waterborne transport community will be informed through them, thereby ensuring an appropriate level of visibility for the Partnership, including its visual identity.


The Partnership will undertake actions that will increase the impact of its activities and the supported RD&I, including ensuring broad awareness within key bodies such as IMO and the European Sustainable Shipping Forum.




University of Southern Denmark, DK
Aalto University Foundation, School of
Engineering, FI
Kühne Logistics University, DE
Universidad de Cádiz, ES
University College London and Southampton
Marine and Maritime Institute, UK
RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, SE

Classification Societies:


Bureau Veritas, FR
Lloyd's Register, UK

Energy Suppliers: European Petroleum Refiners Association, EU

Engineering:  MEC Marine Engineering, EE

International Organisations:  CCNR, FR

Maritime Cluster: Irish Maritime Development Office, IE.  Lighthouse, SE

Maritime Cluster Organisation:  Deutsches Maritimes Zentrum e.V., DE

Maritime Cluster Representatives:  Fondazione CS Mare, IT

Maritime Equipment Manufacturer:


Wärtsilä, Norsepower, ABB Oy Marine and Ports
One Sea Ecosystem and NAPA Safety Solutions, FI
Airseas, FR
MAN Energy Solutions and Orcan Energy AG, DE
Eekels Technology and Bosch Rexroth, NL
Kongsberg Maritime, NO
IB Marine, IT

Port Research:

Fundación Valenciaport, ES
Port of Le Havre, FR
Port of Amsterdam and Port of Rotterdam, NL
European Federation of Inland Ports (EFIP),
Federation of European private port companies
and terminals and European Sea Ports
Organisation, EU


Schiffbautechnische Versuchsanstalt in Wien, AT
Magellan Association, BE
Bulgarian Ship Hydrodynamics Centre, BG
Engitec Systems International Ltd, CY
VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, FI
Centre of Maritime Technologies, BALance and
Centre for Research and Technology Hellas, EL
CNR and Cetena, IT
Aimen, Soermar and Fundacíon Valenciaport, ES
SSPA Sweden AB, SE
Sintef, NO


Royal Association of Netherlands Shipowners,
Van Oord, Wagenborg Shipping, Jumbo
Maritime, Spliethoff, NL
UK Chamber of Shipping, UK
Royal Belgian Shipowners Association, BE
Croatian Shipowners Association, HR
Joint Cyprus Shipowners' Association, CY
Maersk, DK
Finnish Shipowners' Association, FI
Ponant, Armateurs de France, FR
Union of Greek Shipowners, EL
Malta International Shipowners' Association, MT
The European Inland Waterway Transport
Platform, European Tugowners Association,
European Community Shipowners' Association,
European Dredging Association and CLIA,
Intercargo, EU


Uljanik Shipyard Group, HR
Naval Group and Chantiers de l'Atlantique, FR
Meyer Werft Shipyard Group, MV Werften, DE
Damen Shipyard Group and Royal IHC, NL
Navantia, ES
Fincantieri and Cantiere Navale Vittoria, IT

Shipyards and Maritime Equipment Manufacturers:

Danish Maritime, DK
Assonave, IT
Netherlands Maritime Technology, NL
Polish Maritime Technology Forum, PL
Associação das Indústrias Navais, PT
SEA Europe, EU

Waterway Authorities:  Inland Navigation Europe, EU


1 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Environmental_impact_of_shipping
2 https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_19_6691
3 https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:52018DC0773&from=EN
4 https://unfccc.int/process-and-meetings/the-parisagreement/the-paris-agreement
5 https://www.ipcc.ch/sr15/
6 http://www.imo.org/en/MediaCentre/PressBriefings/Pages/06GHGinitialstrategy.aspx
7 https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/IP_19_6837
8 https://www.ccr-zkr.org/files/documents/dmannheim/Mannheimer_Erklaerung_en.pdf
9 http://data.consilium.europa.eu/doc/document/ST-13745-2018-INIT/en/pdf
10 http://www.europarl.europa.eu/doceo/document/B-8-2019-0079_EN.html?redirect
11 https://www.europarl.europa.eu/news/en/pressroom/20191121IPR67110/the-european-parliamentdeclares-climate-emergency
12 https://www.europarl.europa.eu/doceo/document/TA-9-2019-0078_EN.html
13 https://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/infrastructure-industrialization/
14 https://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/climatechange/
15 https://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/oceans/
16 https://public.wmo.int/en/media/press-release/globalclimate-2015-2019-climate-change-accelerates
17 https://unctad.org/en/PublicationsLibrary/rmt2019_en.pdf
18 An overview of relevant actions foreseen in the European Green Deal is attached in Annex B.
19 https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:52018DC0773&from=EN
20 https://ec.europa.eu/clima/policies/eu-climate-action/law_en
21 https://ec.europa.eu/info/sites/info/files/europeangreen-deal-communication_en.pdf
22 https://ec.europa.eu/info/sites/info/files/cwp_2020_new_policy_objectives_factsheet_en.pdf
23 https://ec.europa.eu/environment/air/index_en.htm
24 The contracting parties to the Barcelona Convention have agreed in December 2019 to finalise a joint and coordinated proposal to the IMO in 2022 requesting the possible designation of an ECA for sulphur oxides in the Mediterranean Sea. 

25 The Ambient Air Quality (2008/50/EC, as amended by
Directive (EU) 2015/1480), establishes air quality standards
for a range of pollutants, including NOx (with a specific
limit value for the protection of human health set for NO2).
26 National NOx emissions are in general covered through the National Emission Ceilings - NEC Directive (which covers national emissions ceilings for SO2, NOx, VOC and NH3). Under the NEC Directive invites the Commission and the Member States to pursue multilateral cooperation with international organisations, including the IMO, to promote the achievement of the objective of the said Directive, which is to limit emissions of air pollutants from all sources
27 The Recreational Craft Directive (2013/53/EU) and Non-road Mobile Machinery Regulation (2016/1628/EU) regulate NOx emissions from ships by setting limit values for exhaust emissions (including NOx) for propulsion engines of small pleasure boats (2,5-24 m long) and inland waterway vessels in EU watercourses respectively.
28 https://www.ipcc.ch/sr15/
29 https://www.ipcc.ch/2019/09/25/srocc-press-release/
30 https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2019-01-23/germany-s-dried-up-rivers-cut-growth-but-the-reboundis-coming
31 http://www.waterborne.eu/media/35860/190121-waterborne_sra_web_final.pdf
32 https://www.maersk.com/news/2018/12/04/maersk-setsnet-zero-co2-emission-target-by-2050
33 http://www.inlandnavigation.eu/media/92406/Futureproof-shipping-presentation-191016.pdf
34 https://www.ecsa.eu/news/european-shipping-industrywelcomes-european-green-deal
35 https://worldmaritimenews.com/archives/290006/cmbto-operate-zero-emission-fleet-by-2050/
36 SEA Europe, White Paper, Maritime Technology in Europe: A Strategic Solution Provider for Major Societal Challenges, 2019
37 http://www.seaeurope.eu/ClientData/181/658/348940/3665/4/191213%20Green_Deal_Press_Release.pdf
38 https://ec.europa.eu/epsc/sites/epsc/files/epsc_cleantransport-at-sea.pdf
39 http://isdp.eu/content/uploads/2018/06/Made-in-China-Backgrounder.pdf
40 https://www.oecd.org/finance/Chinas-Belt-and-Road-Initiative-in-the-global-trade-investment-and-financelandscape.pdf
41 SEA Europe, White Paper, Maritime Technology in Europe: A Strategic Solution Provider for Major Societal Challenges, 2019
42 https://ec.europa.eu/transport/modes/maritime_en
43 https://ec.europa.eu/transport/modes/maritime_en
44 https://ec.europa.eu/epsc/sites/epsc/files/epsc_cleantransport-at-sea.pdf
45 Internal Wärtsilä calculations based on proprietary Clarksons data.
46 https://ec.europa.eu/clima/news/commission-publishesinformation-co2-emissions-maritime-transport_en
47 https://www.transportenvironment.org/sites/te/files/publications/Study-EU_shippings_climate_record_20191209_final.pdf
48 https://theicct.org/news/study-global-shippingemissions-rise
49 https://ec.europa.eu/clima/news/commission-publishesinformation-co2-emissions-maritime-transport_en
50 https://mrv.emsa.europa.eu/#public/emission-report
51 https://www.cedelft.eu/en/publications/2056/updateof-maritime-greenhouse-gas-emission-projections
52 http://www.imo.org/en/OurWork/Environment/PollutionPrevention/AirPollution/Documents/Third%20
53 COM(2013) 918 final ‘ Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions - a Clean Air Programme for Europe’
54 The potential for cost effective air emission reductions from international shipping through designation of further Emission Control Areas in EU waters with focus on the Mediterranean Sea.” http://www.iiasa.ac.at/web/home/research/researchPrograms/air/Shipping_emissions_reductions_main.pdf
55 https://ec.europa.eu/info/sites/info/files/europeangreen-deal-communication_en.pdf
57 E.g. ERDF, HELCOM, OSPAR, Barcelona Convention and other regional organisations
58 E.g. Maersk, the world’s largest container shipping company, has pledged to operate carbon neutral vessels from 2030
59 http://www.imo.org/en/OurWork/Environment/PollutionPrevention/AirPollution/Pages/Greenhouse-Gas-Studies-2014.aspx
60 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Environmental_impact_of_shipping
61 https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2009/apr/09/shipping-pollution
62 https://www.iiasa.ac.at/web/home/research/researchPrograms/air/Shipping_emissions_reductions_main.pdf

63 In accordance with Directive 2008/56/EC establishing a framework for community action in the field of marine environmental policy (Marine Strategy Framework Directive), Member States have to achieve good environmental status of their marine waters by 2020. This includes, according to one of the 'descriptors' provided in the Directive, EU rules on different sectors or modes of transport. It is important to note that the same Directive gives an indicative list of pressures and impact that should be taken into account to guide progress towards establishing a good environmental status – and one of the pressures specifically referred to in its Annex III is shipping.


64 Source PROMINENT Deliverable D6.3&D6.5
65 CE Delft, Update of Maritime Greenhouse Gas Emission Projections, 2019
66 https://www.marineinsight.com/main-engine/the-mostpopular-marine-propulsion-engines-in-the-shippingindustry/
67 https://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/indicators/transport-emissions-of-air-pollutants-8/transportemissions
68 https://www.iiasa.ac.at/web/home/research/researchPrograms/air/Shipping_emissions_reductions_main.pdf
69 https://www.iiasa.ac.at/web/home/research/researchPrograms/air/Shipping_emissions_reductions_main.pdf
70 https://worldmaritimenews.com/archives/205936/imodesignates-north-sea-baltic-sea-as-neca/
71 https://ec.europa.eu/transport/modes/inland_en
72 https://ec.europa.eu/inea/en/horizon-2020/projects/h2020-transport/waterborne/prominent
73 Source PROMINENT Deliverable D6.3&D6.5
74 Applied shadow prices (2018): NOx:16,192 euro/ton, Ricardo-AEA Update Handbook External costs of Transport, EC DG MOVE, 2014 PM: 63,778 euro/ton, Ricardo-AEA Update Handbook External costs of Transport, EC DG MOVE, 2014 CO2: 33 euro/ton, Guide CBA DG Regio
75 https://ec.europa.eu/environment/marine/eu-coastand- marine-policy/marine-strategy-framework-directive/index_en.htm
76 Review of the 2015 guidelines for exhaust gas cleaningsystems (Resolution MEPC.259(68))
77 http://www.imo.org/en/OurWork/Environment/BallastWaterManagement/Pages/Default.aspx
78 https://clearseas.org/en/blog/importance-ballast-watermanagement/
79 https://clearseas.org/en/blog/importance-ballast-watermanagement/
80 https://www.researchgate.net/publication/271179593_Marine_Fouling_An_Overview/link/54bf69850cf28ce68e6b4e8d/download
81 Oxford Economics, The Economic Value of the EU Shipping Industry (London, Oxford Economics, 2020)
82 Oxford Economics, The Economic Value of the EU shipping industry, (London, Oxford Economics, 2020)
83 https://ec.europa.eu/epsc/sites/epsc/files/epsc_cleantransport-at-sea.pdf
84 In comparison, SEA Europe member countries generate an annual average production value of €47.1 billion and employ 313,000 people. See BALance, “European Shipbuilding Supply Chain Statistics”, May 2019.
85 https://ec.europa.eu/transport/modes/maritime/ports/ports_en
86 https://ec.europa.eu/epsc/publications/strategic-notes/clean-transport-sea_en
87 https://eu2020.hr/Home/OneNews?id=210
88 https://irena.org/-/media/Files/IRENA/Agency/Publication/2019/Sep/IRENA_Renewable_Shipping_Sep_2019.pdf
89 http://www.waterborne.eu/media/35860/190121-waterborne_sra_web_final.pdf
90 http://www.inlandnavigation.eu/media/88852/SRANOTES20190121.pdf
91 http://www.waterborne.eu/media/100202/191122-waterborne-technical-research-agenda_ss_final.pdf
92 https://ec.europa.eu/transport/sites/transport/files/studies/internalisation-study-exec-summaryisbn-978-92-76-03080-5.pdf
93 https://ec.europa.eu/transport/modes/maritime_en
94 https://ec.europa.eu/transport/modes/inland_en
95 Inland Navigation Europe
96 https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php?title=Glossary:Gross-gross_weight
97 https://cruising.org/-/media/research-updates/research/economic-impact-studies/contribution-of-cruise-tourismto-the-economies-of-europe-2017.pdf
98 Maritime Technology Sector in Europe: A Strategic Solution Provider for Major Societal Challenges, SEA Europe, 2019
99 https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-017-02774-9.epdf?shared_access_token=zdv4XaDHZS6x19r_

100 https://www.globalmaritimeforum.org/news/the-scaleof-investment-needed-to-decarbonize-internationalshipping/
101 https://ec.europa.eu/info/sites/info/files/europeangreen-deal-communication_en.pdf
102 https://ec.europa.eu/clima/policies/innovation-fund_ en#tab-0-0
103 https://ec.europa.eu/info/sites/info/files/innovation_and_modernisation_fund_ema.pdf
104 https://ec.europa.eu/inea/connecting-europe-facility/cef-transport
105 https://ec.europa.eu/inea/en/connecting-europefacility/cef-transport/apply-funding/blending-facility
106 https://ec.europa.eu/regional_policy/en/funding/erdf/
107 https://ec.europa.eu/commission/news/investmentplan-europe-ing-and-eib-provide-eu110m-spliethoffsgreen-shipping-investments-2019-feb-28_en
108 https://ec.europa.eu/easme/en/section/life/lifelegal-basis
109 https://irena.org/-/media/Files/IRENA/Agency/Publication/2019/Sep/IRENA_Renewable_Shipping_Sep_2019.pdf
110 https://www.ecsa.eu/news/ecsa-supportsestablishment-co-programmed-partnership-zeroemission-waterborne-transport
111 Developed in the Strategic Research and Innovation Agenda.
112 SRIAto be finalised by end of summer 2020
113 Such as the IMO, ESSF, EPF (European Ports Forum), CCNR, CESNI, Naiades II implementation group etc.
114 http://www.inlandnavigation.eu/media/88852/SRA-20190121.pdf
115 https://www.martera.eu/start
116 http://www.waterborne.eu/media/87917/190501-pressrelease-waterborne-tp-hydrogen-based-fuels-and-thewaterborne-transport-sector.pdf
117 http://www.waterborne.eu/media/100199/191126-pressrelease-waterborne-tp-the-future-of-the-europeanwaterborne-transport-sector.pdf




Twin sails of the Energy Observer



SOLAR + HYDROGEN - The 'Energy Observer' is a floating laboratory, converted from an ocean racing yacht, powered by sails, to solar and sail power, with onboard hydrogen generation and storage, with a fuel cell to turn back into electricity for her motors. At present this little beauty is about 1 knot slower than PlanetSolar below, but is the subject of ongoing development. She is not yet a ZEWT contender, as in commercial shipping, where 10 knots is the target speed. The collapsible sails contribute around 5% of propulsive force.




c/o SEA Europe
Rue de la Loi, 67 (4th floor)
B-1000, Belgium
+32 2 230 2791

Jaap Gebraad, Executive Director





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