ETHNIC & POLITICAL CLEANSING - Genocide is linked to Eugenics
and Discrimination, in its most extreme form. Examples range from local
authorities persecuting members of a group, in proportion to being
caught out at planning appeals, etc., also being supported by the state,
in failing to provide such victims with an effective remedy. To full on
and systematic industrial scale annihilation, such as the Holocaust.
Cases could be tried by the International Criminal Court.
The Genocide Convention was conceived largely in response to World War II, which saw atrocities such as the Holocaust that lacked an adequate description or legal definition. Polish-Jewish lawyer Raphael Lemkin, who had coined the term genocide in 1944 to describe Nazi policies in occupied Europe, campaigned for its recognition as a crime under international law. This culminated in 1946 in a landmark resolution by the General Assembly that recognized genocide as an international crime and called for the creation of a binding treaty to prevent and punish its perpetration. Subsequent discussions and negotiations among UN member states resulted in the CPPCG.
The CPPCG has influenced law at both the national and international level. Its definition of genocide has been adopted by international and hybrid tribunals, such as the International Criminal Court, and incorporated into the domestic law of several countries. Its provisions are widely considered to be reflective of customary law and therefore binding on all nations whether or not they are parties. The International Court of Justice has likewise ruled that the principles underlying the Convention represent a peremptory norm against genocide that no government can derogate.
The Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (Genocide Convention) is an instrument of international law that codified for the first time the crime of genocide. The Genocide Convention was the first human rights treaty adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations on 9 December 1948 and signified the international community’s commitment to ‘never again’ after the atrocities committed during the Second World War. Its adoption marked a crucial step towards the development of international human rights and international criminal law as we know it today.
According to the Genocide Convention, genocide is a crime that can take place both in time of war as well as in time of peace. The definition of the crime of genocide, as set out in the Convention, has been widely adopted at both national and international levels, including in the 1998 Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (ICC). Learn more about the definition of the crime of genocide.
Importantly, the Convention establishes on State Parties the obligation to take measures to prevent and to punish the crime of genocide, including by enacting relevant legislation and punishing perpetrators, “whether they are constitutionally responsible rulers, public officials or private individuals” (Article IV). That obligation, in addition to the prohibition not to commit genocide, have been considered as norms of international customary law and therefore, binding on all States, whether or not they have ratified the Genocide Convention.
Status of membership
The Genocide Convention has been ratified or acceded to by 152 States (as of July 2019). Other 42 United Nations Member States have yet to do so. From those, 19 are from Africa, 17 from Asia and 6 from America. Check the map below for details.
The Special Advisor on the Prevention of Genocide calls upon all United Nations Member States that are not yet party to the Genocide Convention, to ratify or accede to it as a matter of priority, so that the Genocide Convention becomes an instrument of universal membership.
Every year on 9 December, the United Nations marks the adoption of the Genocide Convention, which is also the International Day of Commemoration and Dignity of the Victims of the Crime of Genocide and of the Prevention of this Crime. Watch the latest event marking the 70th anniversary of the Convention.
OF RATIFICATION - The civilised world has come together to combat
Genocide. Presumably, those countries abstaining either have the
intention of conducting ethnic cleansing programmes in the future, or
don't much care for the protection of people in their own or other
lands. Where one might expect some African states to be reluctant to
sign to such principles, given the incidences of recorded crimes
involving the taking of lives and hacking of limbs, it comes as
something of a surprise (according to this map) to see Japan and some
Indonesian areas, not to have engaged positively. It might then be wise
to steer clear of such countries, in all things commercial and tourist.
CONVENTION ON THE PREVENTION AND PUNISHMENT OF THE CRIME OF GENOCIDE
Approved and proposed for signature and ratification or accession by General Assembly resolution 260 A (III) of 9 December 1948
Entry into force: 12 January 1951, in accordance with article XIII
The Contracting Parties ,
Having considered the declaration made by the General Assembly of the United Nations
in its resolution 96 (I) dated 11 December 1946 that genocide is a crime under international law, contrary to the spirit and aims of the
United Nations and condemned
by the civilized world,
The Contracting Parties undertake to enact, in accordance with their respective
Constitutions, the necessary legislation to give effect to the provisions of the present
Convention, and, in particular, to provide effective penalties for persons guilty of
genocide or any of the other acts enumerated in article III.
Persons charged with genocide or any of the other acts enumerated in article III shall
be tried by a competent tribunal of the State in the territory of which the act was
committed, or by such international penal tribunal as may have jurisdiction with respect
to those Contracting Parties which shall have accepted its jurisdiction.
Genocide and the other acts enumerated in article III shall not be considered as political
crimes for the purpose of extradition.
The Contracting Parties pledge themselves in such cases to grant extradition in
accordance with their laws and treaties in force.
Any Contracting Party may call upon the competent organs of the United Nations to take
such action under the Charter of the United Nations as they consider appropriate for the
prevention and suppression of acts of genocide or any of the other acts enumerated in
Disputes between the Contracting Parties relating to the interpretation, application or
fulfilment of the present Convention, including those relating to the responsibility of a State for genocide or for any of the other acts enumerated in article III, shall be
submitted to the International Court of Justice at the request of any of the parties to the dispute.
The present Convention, of which the Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish
texts are equally authentic, shall bear the date of 9 December 1948.
The present Convention shall be open until 31 December 1949 for signature on behalf of
any Member of the United Nations and of any non-member State to which an invitation
to sign has been addressed by the General Assembly.
After 1 January 1950, the present Convention may be acceded to on behalf of any
Member of the United Nations and of any non-member State which has received an
invitation as aforesaid.
Instruments of accession shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the
Any Contracting Party may at any time, by notification addressed to the Secretary-General of the United Nations, extend the application of the present Convention to all or
any of the territories for the conduct of whose foreign relations that Contracting Party is responsible.
On the day when the first twenty instruments of ratification or accession have been
deposited, the Secretary-General shall draw up a procès-verbal and transmit a copy
thereof to each Member of the United Nations and to each of the non-member States
contemplated in article XI.
The present Convention shall come into force on the ninetieth day following the date of
deposit of the twentieth instrument of ratification or accession.
Any ratification or accession effected subsequent to the latter date shall become
effective on the ninetieth day following the deposit of the instrument of ratification or accession.
The present Convention shall remain in effect for a period of ten years as from the date of its coming into force.
It shall thereafter remain in force for successive periods of five years for such
Contracting Parties as have not denounced it at least six months before the expiration
of the current period.
Denunciation shall be effected by a written notification addressed to the Secretary-General of the United
If, as a result of denunciations, the number of Parties to the present Convention should
become less than sixteen, the Convention shall cease to be in force as from the date on
which the last of these denunciations shall become effective.
A request for the revision of the present Convention may be made at any time by any
Contracting Party by means of a notification in writing addressed to the Secretary-General.
The General Assembly shall decide upon the steps, if any, to be taken in respect of such request.
The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall notify all Members of the United
Nations and the non-member States contemplated in article XI of the following:
(a) Signatures, ratifications and accessions received in accordance with article XI;
(b) Notifications received in accordance with article XII;
(c) The date upon which the present Convention comes into force in accordance with
(d) Denunciations received in accordance with article XIV;
(e) The abrogation of the Convention in accordance with article XV;
(f) Notifications received in accordance with article XVI.
The original of the present Convention shall be deposited in the archives of the United
A certified copy of the Convention shall be transmitted to each Member of the United
Nations and to each of the non-member States contemplated in article XI.
The present Convention shall be registered by the Secretary-General of the United
Nations on the date of its coming into force.
MADE FAMINE - There is little difference between Man Made Famine, once the cause of the starvation and deaths is known, than other forms of genocide. Those responsible are held to be
Climate Nazis by many, and may one day be accountable for such crimes in the
Man Made Famine is a form of geographical
genocide. You don't have to line people up and shoot them, gas, or otherwise take their lives to commit the crime of this form of genocide. You simply have to carry on, business as usual, in the knowledge that failing to take action to curb
global warming, is killing people in another land.
Famine that is caused by the industrialization and acceleration of growth of economies in unsustainable fashion, is nothing less than the premeditated murder of those less fortunate peoples in climate vulnerable locations on planet earth, who are unable to defend themselves.
The cause of much famine
is man-made. As our climate warms, the artic ice melts
causing ocean levels to rise and agricultural land to become
deserts. The most influential world leaders, of the G7 and G20
are fully aware of the consequences of failing to act in
sufficient time to prevent Geographical
Genocide. According to the 1948 Convention,
is a crime. Any person or state advocating policies that do
not seek to reduce climate warming, are therefore criminals.
The excuse that their economy might suffer, is no excuse when
it comes to (in effect) murdering another human being. It is
the insatiable lust for economic growth that has caused the
deaths of millions of displaced persons and those who died of