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Robotrucks will need automated service station to refuel en-route. By using the SmartNet system, they can be recharged in minutes with autonomous vending, except in the case of mishap. When human engineers would be called for repairs. But, typically, regular servicing and remote data monitoring will tell operators what the state of play is.





The allure of the hydrogen economy is plain, splitting plain ordinary water using electrolysis to obtain oxygen and hydrogen gas is like a dream come true, especially if we can generate free electricity using solar cells and wind turbines to split the water.


Then what do we do with all that hydrogen?


We use it in the most convenient and cost effective way.


But what is that?


Well, that is the problem. At the moment many stakeholders are developing entirely different technologies, with no standard, except the wheels and tyres of the vehicles they are looking to power.


What is the best investment then?


Nobody can say for sure. That is the problem. And every year there is new technology, like your computer and operating system that is out of date the moment you buy it. Because the makers are already developing the model and OS they will do everything they can to sell you next year.


[That is hardly climate friendly trading, but at the moment, there is no gold star for electronics merchandising to be future proofed. Indeed, the opposite is true. They want to lure you in today, lure you in next year, and every year after that. Presumably, that is the Bill Gates formula for riches, with Microsoft at the helm, endorsed by just about every laptop maker around the world. Never ending tweaking and ever faster core processors - that are not needed for everyday office use. The old computers and operating systems were in fact much faster, used less energy and did not steal so much of your personal information for marketing purposes. It may sound immoral, but there it is.]


Back to automobiles. With investment in factories and chassis designs for vehicles, it is a different matter. But what really counts is shares and dividends, as in attracting finance.


The stock market is dependent on investors hedging the bets. That is what a Hedge Fund is.


Hedging in finance means to limit or reduce exposure to risk, in the hope to make an investment more secure and successful despite market instability. To offset risk, hedge funds will deploy various financial instruments or market strategies. The idea is that by diversifying the investments which make up their investment portfolio, they are at less risk because they’re not completely dependent upon one asset class.


The Universal Energy Cartridge, acts like a Hedge Fund for auto makers, in terms of infrastructure.


In turn, the system may provide governments looking to transition from fossil fuels in part by 2030, and in total by 2050, a way of reaching their goals, faster than with ordinary engineering evolution.


OEM's can still make healthy profits with sales and servicing, but vehicles last longer. That is a fact of life with electric vehicles, since the motors are much more reliable with fewer moving parts. Against this, we must generate a second user market, such that everybody has mobility. Or, we could make EV's cheaper to buy. And that is where SmartNet scores, with PAYD (Pay As You Drive).








An ordinary car like the Toyota Mirai, Honda Clarity, BMW X5, or Hyundai ix35, is stuck with compressed hydrogen gas for life. If, they'd used a Universal Energy Cartridge, they could move with the times. And need only have designed the chassis format once, instead of starting all over again for different fuels.









METHANOL FUEL CELL CARTRIDGE - It looks like a battery cartridge. It performs like a battery cartridge. It stores energy like a battery cartridge, but it is a hydrogen fuel store and fuel cell cartridge combination. But the cartridge is even more versatile. It works with methanol and ammonia, liquid hydrogen and compressed gas. It can also be a lithium battery cartridge. That is why we call in the 'Universal Battery.' It is a system where compatible vehicles are future proofed against technology changes. Which, let us face it, can happen almost overnight as the rate of innovation development today.


Think also of your buyers (private and fleet operators) and investors in the technology. If you invest in hydrogen and methanol takes over, you've lost your money. If you invest in lithium batteries and hydrogen takes over, you've lost you money. But, if you invest in the Universal Battery, it makes no difference what chemistry is inside. Your vehicle fleet is future proofed.









Until diesel and petrol become more expensive, and subsidies are abolished, motorists will have little or no incentive to switch to battery or fuel-cell vehicles. We might stick with internal combustion engines, but power them with biofuels, except that we need the land to grow crops, and forest (fires) clearing for such use is causing global warming. Or it might turn out more efficient to build electric cars with onboard batteries that you charge up at home.










PEMFC - Polymer exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) - The Department of Energy (DOE) is focusing on the PEMFC as the most likely candidate for transportation applications. The PEMFC has a high power density and a relatively low operating temperature (ranging from 60 to 80 degrees Celsius, or 140 to 176 degrees Fahrenheit). The low operating temperature means that it doesn't take very long for the fuel cell to warm up and begin generating electricity.





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