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Antonio Gutteras UN Secretary General


DIRTY HABITS - The United Nations is an organization that should have been promoting an energy infrastructure for vehicles to run on renewable energy. If they had done so, range anxiety would be a thing of the past. Sadly, the task still lies ahead of us. politicians are not scientists, yet they make decisions for the voting public that scientists should make.



Taking into account the difficulties of storage and conversion losses, we are discounting hydrogen and fuel cells from potential energy storage for EVs, leaving us with batteries. The video below explains our thinking rather well.


Looking at batteries then, all engineers know that charging a battery quickly reduces its working life, effectively reducing the number of charge cycles, just as much as drawing charge quickly does the same.


The economics of owning an EV where fast charging is the only option is therefore questionable as a long term and sustainable solution to global warming. The cost of replacing batteries sooner as a result of fast charging is a major factor to consider.


A much better solution in economic terms would be controlled charging at a rate to enhance battery life.


That might be allied to variable gearing to reduce the amperage draw, where several experiments have show that a CVT drivetrain improves vehicle range by reducing current draw.





But first things first, we are in danger of going down the wrong road with fast charging, as per the California Air Resources Board, who are promoting such technology where they have dismissed cartridge exchange as more costly, when in fact it holds the potential to be far cheaper in the long term for reducing global warming and does not involve installing millions of roadside charging points.


Further, the system is future proofed with the ability to transition from battery to hydrogen fuel cell capability. This is only possible with a universal cartridge system.


Installing a much lower number of service stations that provide near instant recharging without damaging batteries, is just good economic sense. We are not just talking about the convenience for the operator, we are talking about the reduced infrastructure cost overall - the cost to the country and the energy suppliers.




4X4 - This is a four wheel drive electric car produced by Jacob Lohner and Ferdinand Porsche. In 1898 Jacob Lohner, a Viennese carriage maker, decided that self-powered cars were the future and opted for an electrically powered vehicle. Electric vehicles had a number of obvious advantages over petrol engine cars: they were easier to start and to drive, and they were quieter to run. Not least they produced no direct exhaust gases, whereas the air, according to Lohner, “was being mercilessly ruined by the petrol engines that now occur in such large numbers”.

Despite Ferdinand Porsche having no formal engineering education, Lohner (Lohner-Werke) employed the 23 year old to develop an electric powertrain for his coaches. The young Porsche came up with the idea for the design of the Lohner-Porsche vehicle. Instead of complex drive trains, internal-pole electric motors powered the wheels directly. The hub-mounted electric motors were powered by batteries with a terminal voltage of 60 - 80 volts and a capacity of 170 - 300 ampere-hours (Ah).

Porsche's prototype car boasted a low-friction drivetrain, due to the hub-mounted electric motors directly driving the wheels. Each internal-pole electric motor was capable of 2.5 to 3.5 hp (1.9 to 2.6 kW), peaking to 7 hp (5.2 kW) for short bursts. At a normal speed of 35 km/h the vehicle had a range of around 50 km. The Lohner-Porsche received a great deal of recognition and praise at the Paris Exposition of 1900.



One of the Six most important changes to cool our planet is a clean Transport Infrastructure to eliminate carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases such as nitrous oxides from building in our bubble. This should include servicing for electric vehicles as being the most energy efficient form of transport at the moment and potentially 100% renewable in the search for that elusive Circular Economy.



USA Circular EV economics for sustainable clean motoring 



SUSTAINABLE EV SERVICING - This concept EV forecourt offers between 7.68 - 15.36MWh of solar assisted energy storage with a capacity of between 48-96 battery cartridges on a continuous charge cycle. Five of these stations (76.8MW) could recharge (refuel) up to 10 trucks or cars a minute at peak times.





SMARTNET FASTCHARGE - During rush hour, up to 300* vehicles might be serviced in one hour if drivers don't dawdle, as in get out of their vehicles for any reason - there is no need using automated billing - but this would require registered users. The truck shown in these AutoCAD drawings is 3.55 wide x 3.5 high x 7.7M long (8 x 11.5 x 25 feet). This station could accommodate trucks 4.46M (14.77 feet) high as shown, or with a raised roof, almost any truck currently on the market - though longer thinner trucks are more fuel efficient. 


During an eight hour day 2,400 trucks might be serviced using five forecourts on the assumption that we start every morning with 96 x 5 = 480 slow charged cartridges from off-peak supplies. The same forecourt might be used to service fuel-cell cars powered by stabilized hydrogen. One size fits all with agreement as to a universal cartridge format. Agreement is perhaps the next stumbling block that may require directives from the G20.


* Fastest theoretical exchange cycle @ one minute per exchange with drivers/passengers staying in their vehicles at all times.





1. TRANSPORT: Phase out polluting vehicles. Government aims to end the sale of new petrol, and diesel vehicles by 2040 but have no infrastructure plan to support such ambition. Marine transport can be carbon neutral. Air travel should be limited.


2. RENEWABLESRenewable energy should replace carbon-based fuels (coal, oil and gas) in our electricity, heating and transport. Conventional energy exploration companies should consider a phased transition to green alternatives.


3. HOUSING: On site micro or macro generation is the best option, starting with new build homes that are both affordable and sustainable. Councils who empire build climate unfriendly houses must be stopped with legislation and enforceable penalties. 


4. AGRICULTURE: We need trees to absorb carbon emissions from a growing population, air travel, and to build new homes. We need to reduce food waste and promote less energy intensive eating habits such as no meat Mondays.


5. INDUSTRY: Factories should be aiming for solar heating and onsite renewable energy generation until the grid is all solar and wind powered.


6. POLITICS: - National governing bodies need to adopt policies to eliminate administrative wastages, to include scaling down spending on war machines, increase spend on educating the public and supporting sustainable social policies that mesh with other cultures. We need an end to local empire building kleptocrats.






"It is harder for a rich man to enter the kingdom of heaven than pass through the eye of a needle."


That is an old Biblical proverb, that is equally true of wealthy nations trying to divest themselves of a fossil fuel based economy.


The wealthier the state, the more it will cling to petroleum as a concentrated and transportable energy supply, even if they have the technology to stop their plutocratic tendencies.


Nobody likes change. We are creatures of habit. We feel comfortable with filling stations, diesel and petrol. We like gas and oil central heating and air conditioning. Kleptocrats in society rely on the unwillingness of administrations to change.








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